What's Happening to My Body When I'm Sick?

by Melvin Feng, Jessica Hawkins, Jennifer Park, George Joseph

Lesson Plan 1


Name:  Jennifer Park                                    


Title of lesson:  Intro to Viruses


Length of lesson:  50 minutes


Description of the class:

                     Name of course:  Biology

                     Grade level:  9th

                     Honors or regular:  Regular


Source of the lesson:


TEKS addressed:

(4)  Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things and have specialized parts that perform specific functions, and that viruses are different from cells and have different properties and functions. The student is expected to:

(C)  Compare the structures and functions of viruses to cells and describe the role of viruses in causing diseases and conditions such as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, common colds, smallpox, influenza, and warts

(11)  Science concepts. The student knows that organisms maintain homeostasis. The student is expected to:

(D)  Summarize the role of microorganisms in maintaining and disrupting equilibrium including diseases in plants and animals and decay in an ecosystem.

1.  Objectives

     Students will be able to:

        Describe the structure and shape of viruses.

        Distinguish the differences between lytic and lysogenic cycles.

        Explain the mechanism of transduction.

        Identify and describe several viral diseases and ways to defend against them.

 2.  Performance standard

     The students are expected to follow attentively to the lecture and Powerpoint presentation and take down informative notes throughout the lesson.  They should be able to fulfill all of the objectives at the end of the lesson and answer at least 70% of the questions correctly on the virus quiz.


Resources, materials and supplies needed

Powerpoint presentation


Supplementary materials, handouts

Virus notes (will turn in later)

Virus quiz


Safety Issues



Accommodations for learners with special needs (ELLs, Special Ed, 504 G&T):

None needed


                            Direct Instruction Organization


Teacher Does                    Probing Questions                          Student Does          

3.  Anticipatory Set

Learning Experience(s)


Begin by asking how many of the students have gotten sick this pass year and what kind of diseases they had.


Then ask how many were prescribed medication to treat their illnesses.






After asking the last question, introduce today’s topic as “Intro to Viruses”.

Approx. Time__5__mins




How many of you have gotten sick this past year?




And how many have taken medicine/antibiotics to get better/treat your illnesses?


Can you think of reasons how you got sick and what caused your illnesses?





Most everyone will raise their hands.




Most everyone will raise their hands.



Various responses: (I got sick from others; it was really cold outside; from viruses; from bacteria; etc.)


Checking for Understanding

 (Decision Point Assessment):





Can you think of reasons why and how you got sick?

(same as above)


Various responses: I got sick from others; it was really cold outside; from viruses; from bacteria; etc.  (Once students bring up reasons such as germs, viruses, and bacteria, I will move onto the next section.)



4.  Teaching

I will be going through the powerpoint presentation and lecturing from it.














































Approx. Time__20__mins



Do you think viruses can be seen with a microscope?  Why or why not?  How can we see them?


How do you define something that is living?



Do you consider virus as a living organism?  Why or why not?


What are DNA and RNA?














Describe the differences between lytic and lysogenic cycles.


What are some possible reasons that a virus would prefer one cycle over the other?





What are some ways to defend ourselves from viruses?




Why can we not use antibiotics to treat viral infections?



Yes/no; cannot be seen with normal microscope because viruses are too small; use electron microscope.


It breathes, eats, grows, reproduces, uses energy, respond to stimuli, etc.


Yes/No; need to be inside a living organism to grow, respond to stimuli…..


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) serves as the template for translation of genes into proteins, transferring amino acids to the ribosome to form proteins, and also translating the transcript into proteins.


The cell bursts in the lytic cycle while it doesn’t in the lysogenic cycle; etc.


It may be more advantageous to lay dormant for a while (conserve energy) or produce many virus particles to infect many more cell, etc.


Body’s natural defenses: skin, mucous membranes, antibodies; vaccinations….

(some may say antibiotics which is incorrect)


Because antibiotics are made to treat only bacterial infections.

Checking for Understanding

 (Decision Point Assessment):





Same questions as above.

Same answers as above.  (If students are unable to respond correctly to most of the questions, then I will go over the material again more slowly and more in depth.)


5.  Guided Practice

Learning Experience(s)


I will give them a question to answer on their own on a separate piece of paper.  Then I will ask the students to discuss their answers in groups and then have several students share their responses to the class.


Approx. Time__10__mins




Explain why antibiotics cannot be used to treat viral infections, what would happen if we did use them, and what else we could do to treat them.




Antibiotics are only for bacterial infections; antibiotic resistance will increase and make it more difficult to treat bacterial infections; we cannot cure viral infections but can treat the symptoms through medications and prevent them through vaccinations….

Checking for Understanding

 (Decision Point Assessment)




Same question as above.

If students are able to answer this question and give satisfactory explanations, then you can move on to the next section.  If not, then we could go over as a class a possible way to answer this question.


6.  Closure


Summarize the lecture and explain to the students what they will be covering for the next several days.  Allow some time for students to ask questions about the lecture.


Approx. Time__5__mins








Checking for Understanding

 (Decision Point Assessment)





If students have no more questions about the lecture, then you can move on to the final section.



  7.  Independent Practice

Lesson Objective(s)



Approx. Time__10__mins


(Virus quiz)

Virus quiz will contain 8 questions (students will be able to use their notes).




Virus Quiz


1. Viruses reproduce by:
A. Attacking a host cell and then waiting for the cell to die.

B. Splitting in half once they enter a host cell and later growing.

C. Using the process of meiosis.

D. Using the host cell's DNA to create new viruses.


2.  A virus is unique in that it:
A. Contains DNA.
B. Contains RNA.

C. Reproduces in a short time.

D. Cannot reproduce outside a living cell.


3.  The protein coat that envelopes the viral genetic material is known as a:

A. Virion

B. Head

C. Capsid

D. Case


4.  A virus that attacks a bacterial cell is called a:
A. Provirus.
B. Bacteriophage.

C. Bacilullus.

D. Spirillum.


5. Which type of viral infection literally takes over and quickly destroys the host cell?
A. Lytic cycle.
B. Lysogenic cycle.

C. Antibiotic cycle.

D. Conjugation cycle.


6. The ability for viruses to transfer genetic information from one host cell to another is called:
A. Transmutation
B. Transformation

C. Translation

D. Transduction


7.  List 3 diseases that are caused by viruses.





8.  Can viral infection be treated with antibiotics?  Why or why not?


Lesson Plan 2
Lesson Plan 3
Lesson Plan 4
Lesson Plan 5
Lesson Plan 6
Lesson Plan 7
Lesson Plan 8